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A Brief Description of the Holland Personality Typology

 (from the Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes, 3rd Edition, by Gary D. Gottfredson and John Holland)








Preferences for activities and occupations

Manipulation of machines tools and things

Exploration, understanding, and prediction or control of natural and social phenomena

Literary, musical or artistic activities

Helping, teaching, treating, counseling or serving others  thru  personal interaction

Persuading, manipulating or directing others

Establishing or maintaining orderly routines, application of standards



Material rewards for tangible accomplishments

Development or acquisition of knowledge

Creative expression of ideas, emotions, or sentiments

Fostering the welfare of others, social service

Material accomplishment and social status

Material or financial accomplishment and power in social, political or business arenas

Sees self as

Practical, conservative, and having manual and manipulative skills – lacking interpersonal skills

Analytical, intelligent, skeptical, and having academic talent – lacking interpersonal skills

Open to experience, innovative, intellectual – lacking clerical or office skills

Empathic, patient, and having interpersonal skills – lacking mechanical ability

Having sales and persuasive ability – lacking scientific ability

Having technical skills in business or production- lacking artistic competencies

Others see as


Normal, frank

Asocial, intellectual

Unconventional, disorderly, creative

Nurturing, agreeable, extroverted

Energetic, gregarious

Careful, conforming


Interaction with people

Persuasion or soles activities

Routines and conformity to established rules


Scientific, intellectual or abstruse topics

Ambiguous or unstructured undertakings